Section 1.2 Obesity Pathophysiology

Key Points

  • Obesity has a genetic basis as well as environmental and behavioral origins
  • Age contributes to a shift in balance between fat and muscle mass
  • Various negative feedback loops contribute to obesity
    • Increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity
      • Alters energy homeostasis, leading to a reduced metabolic rate
      • Alters neurohormonal signals, leading to increased appetite
    • Increased visceral adiposity
      • Promotes insulin resistance
      • Promotes inflammation
        • Worsens insulin resistance
        • Leads to macrophage mobilization into adipose tissue, which worsens inflammation
      • Together, inflammation and insulin resistance contribute to development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and other poor outcomes

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